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Determining the effects of adulterants on drug detection via enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay and adulterant tests strips

Published: Jun 11, 2018

Author(s): Bianca Olivieri, Mark Marić, Candice Bridge

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract The use of immunoassays for drug screening has increased due to their sensitivity towards target analytes, specifically the enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Adulterant test strips are commonly used in conjunction with immunoassay tests to ensure the integrity of the specimen has not been altered prior to drug screening. This research focuses on determining which adulterants can produce a false negative...

Read More thumbnail image: Determining the effects of adulterants on drug detection via enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and adulterant tests strips

DNA adducts: Formation, biological effects, and new biospecimens for mass spectrometric measurements in humans

Published: Jun 11, 2018

Author(s): Byeong Hwa Yun, Jingshu Guo, Medjda Bellamri, Robert J. Turesky

Journal: Mass Spectrometry Reviews

Hazardous chemicals in the environment and diet or their electrophilic metabolites can form adducts with genomic DNA, which can lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. In addition, reactive intermediates can be generated in the body through oxidative stress and damage the genome. The identification and measurement of DNA adducts are required for understanding exposure and the causal role of a genotoxic...

Read More thumbnail image: DNA adducts Formation biological effects and new biospecimens for mass spectrometric measurements in humans

Proteomics biomarkers for solid tumors: Current status and future prospects

Published: Jun 11, 2018

Author(s): Iwona Belczacka, Agnieszka Latosinska, Jochen Metzger, David Marx, Antonia Vlahou, Harald Mischak, Maria Frantzi

Journal: Mass Spectrometry Reviews

Cancer is a heterogeneous multifactorial disease, which continues to be one of the main causes of death worldwide. Despite the extensive efforts for establishing accurate diagnostic assays and efficient therapeutic schemes, disease prevalence is on the rise, in part, however, also due to improved early detection. For years, studies were focused on genomics and transcriptomics, aiming at the discovery of new tests...

Read More thumbnail image: Proteomics biomarkers for solid tumors Current status and future prospects

Raman spectroscopy as a powerful technique for the identification of polymers used in cast sculptures from museum collections

Published: Jun 8, 2018

Author(s): Anna Klisińska‐Kopacz, Barbara Łydżba‐Kopczyńska, Monika Czarnecka, Tomasz Koźlecki, Julio Hoyo Mélendez, Agata Mendys, Anna Kłosowska‐Klechowska, Michał Obarzanowski, Piotr Frączek

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract The chemical identification of materials is the first step for developing and implementing recommendations for the care and display of resin cast and plastic objects in museum collections. This paper presents advantages as well as limitations of portable Raman. Therefore, a comparative analysis of portable and benchtop Raman instruments was performed in the study of materials found in the contemporary art collections of the...

Read More thumbnail image: Raman spectroscopy as a powerful technique for the identification of polymers used in cast sculptures from museum collections

Optimization of artemisinin extraction from Artemisia annua L. with supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol using response surface methodology

Published: Jun 7, 2018

Author(s): Ozan Nazim Ciftci, Jessica Cahyadi, Selma E. Guigard, Marleny D. A. Saldaña

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Malaria is a high priority life‐threatening public health concern in developing countries, and therefore there is a growing interest to obtain artemisinin for the production of artemisinin‐based combination therapy products. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from the Artemisia annua L. plant using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC‐CO2) modified with ethanol. Response surface methodology based on central composite rotatable design...

Read More thumbnail image: Optimization of artemisinin extraction from Artemisia annua L_ with supercritical carbon dioxide  ethanol using response surface methodology

Investigation of the pigment use in the Tomb of the Reliefs and other tombs in the Etruscan Banditaccia Necropolis

Published: Jun 7, 2018

Author(s): Matthias Alfeld, Cecilia Baraldi, Maria Cristina Gamberini, Philippe Walter

Journal: X-Ray Spectrometry

The pigment use in the Tomb of the Reliefs (fourth century BC) and four other tombs (seventh to fourth century BC) in the Etruscan Banditaccia Necropolis near Cerveteri, Italy, has been investigated. We made use of X‐ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spot analysis, XRF imaging, infrared luminescence and photography supported by Dstretch contrast enhancement. We identified the use of haematite, goethite, calcite, carbon black, manganese...

Read More thumbnail image: Investigation of the pigment use in the Tomb of the Reliefs and other tombs in the Etruscan Banditaccia Necropolis

Development of micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of three defined impurities in indomethacin

Published: Jun 5, 2018

Author(s): Petra Riasová, Dagmar Doubková, Lucie Pincová, Ondřej Jung, Miroslav Polášek, Pavel Jáč

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of indomethacin impurities (4‐chlorobenzoic acid, 5‐methoxy‐2‐methyl‐3‐indoleacetic acid, and 3,4‐dichloroindomethacin) has been developed. A 64.5/56‐cm fused silica 50 μm id capillary with extended light path (150 μm id) detection window was used. Internal standard was 1‐naphthylacetic acid. The analytes were separated at 30 kV with ...

Read More thumbnail image: Development of micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of three defined impurities in indomethacin

Current state‐of‐art of STR sequencing in forensic genetics

Published: Jun 5, 2018

Author(s): Antonio Alonso, Pedro Alberto Barrio, Petra Müller, Steffi Köcher, Burkhard Berger, Pablo Martin, Martin Bodner, Sascha Willuweit, Walther Parson, Lutz Roewer, Bruce Budowle

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract The current state of validation and implementation strategies of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology for the analysis of STR markers for forensic genetics use is described, covering the topics of the current catalog of commercial MPS‐STR panels, leading MPS‐platforms, and MPS‐STR data analysis tools. In addition, the developmental and internal validation studies carried out to date to evaluate reliability,...

Read More thumbnail image: Current stateofart of STR sequencing in forensic genetics

Development of a massively parallel sequencing assay for investigating sequence polymorphisms of 15 short tandem repeats in a Chinese Northern Han population

Published: Jun 5, 2018

Author(s): Qing‐Xia Zhang, Meng Yang, Ya‐Jiao Pan, Jing Zhao, Bao‐Wang Qu, Feng Cheng, Ya‐Ran Yang, Zhang‐Ping Jiao, Li Liu, Jiang‐Wei Yan

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has been used in forensic genetics in recent years owing to several advantages, e.g. MPS can provide precise descriptions of the repeat allele structure and variation in the repeat‐flanking regions, increasing the discriminating power among loci and individuals. However, it cannot be fully utilized unless sufficient population data are available for all loci. Thus, there is a pressing...

Read More thumbnail image: Development of a massively parallel sequencing assay for investigating sequence polymorphisms of 15 short tandem repeats in a Chinese Northern Han population

Evaluation of massively parallel sequencing for forensic DNA methylation profiling

Published: Jun 5, 2018

Author(s): Rebecca Richards, Jayshree Patel, Kate Stevenson, SallyAnn Harbison

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Epigenetics is an emerging area of interest in forensic science. DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic modification, can be applied to chronological age estimation, identical twin differentiation and body fluid identification. However, there is not yet an agreed, established methodology for targeted detection and analysis of DNA methylation markers in forensic research. Recently, a massively parallel sequencing‐based...

Read More thumbnail image: Evaluation of massively parallel sequencing for forensic DNA methylation profiling

Cancer in the crosshairs: targeting cancer metabolism with hyperpolarized carbon‐13 MRI technology

Published: Jun 5, 2018

Author(s): Cornelius Morze, Matthew E. Merritt

Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

Magnetic resonance (MR)‐based hyperpolarized (HP) 13C metabolic imaging is under active pursuit as a new clinical diagnostic method for cancer detection, grading, and monitoring of therapeutic response. Following the tremendous success of metabolic imaging by positron emission tomography, which already plays major roles in clinical oncology, the added value of HP 13C MRI is emerging. Aberrant glycolysis and central carbon metabolism is a hallmark of...

Read More thumbnail image: Cancer in the crosshairs targeting cancer metabolism with hyperpolarized carbon13 MRI technology

Enhanced oil recovery assignment using a new strategy for clustering oil reservoirs: Application of fuzzy logics

Published: Jun 5, 2018

Author(s): Mohsen Khojastehmehr, Abbas Naderifar, Babak Aminshahidy

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) aims at producing more oil from low productive reservoirs. EOR is a costly process due to the time and expenses required to allocate a suitable EOR method to an oil reservoir. For this purpose, this work presents a systematic approach to incorporate past experiences into a compact system to assign the EOR process to oil reservoirs. Because the number of clusters within the reservoirs data is not...

Read More thumbnail image: Enhanced oil recovery assignment using a new strategy for clustering oil reservoirs Application of fuzzy logics

Multimode complex process monitoring using double‐level local information based local outlier factor method

Published: Jun 5, 2018

Author(s): Lei Wang, Xiaogang Deng, Yuping Cao

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract Industrial processes typically have multiple operating modes with complex data distribution and locality faults, which challenges the traditional multivariate statistical process monitoring methods. To address this problem, a double‐level local information‐based local outlier factor (LOF) method is proposed in this work for multimode complex process monitoring. First, to handle the multimodality, the local neighborhood...

Read More thumbnail image: Multimode complex process monitoring using doublelevel local information based local outlier factor method

Ex vivo diffusion MRI of the human brain: Technical challenges and recent advances

Published: Jun 4, 2018

Author(s): Alard Roebroeck, Karla L. Miller, Manisha Aggarwal

Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

This review discusses ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) as an important research tool for neuroanatomical investigations and the validation of in vivo dMRI techniques, with a focus on the human brain. We review the challenges posed by the properties of post‐mortem tissue, and discuss state‐of‐the‐art tissue preparation methods and recent advances in pulse sequences and acquisition techniques to tackle these. We then...

Read More thumbnail image: Ex vivo diffusion MRI of the human brain Technical challenges and recent advances

A review of orthogonal projections for calibration

Published: Jun 4, 2018

Author(s): Jean‐Michel Roger, Jean‐Claude Boulet

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract Effective methods often rely on simple mathematical operators. Among these operators, orthogonal projections have been widely used because of their simplicity in compensating for detrimental factors. This efficiency depends largely on the way these tools are prepared. This article links the mathematical basics of orthogonal projections to the notion of vectoral subspaces, highlighting which information should be removed in...

Read More thumbnail image: A review of orthogonal projections for calibration

Preparation, intercalation, and characterization of nanostructured (Zn, Al) layered double hydroxides (LDHs)

Published: Jun 1, 2018

Author(s): M. Richetta, A. Varone, A. Mattoccia, P.G. Medaglia, S. Kaciulis, A. Mezzi, P. Soltani, R. Pizzoferrato

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

The term layered double hydroxides (LDHs) is used to define synthetic or natural lamellar hydroxides with 2 or more kinds of metallic cations in the main layers, and hydrated interlayer domains, containing anionic species. Layered double hydroxides, also known as hydrotalcite materials, have attracted considerable interest from both industry and academia. They are interesting for their intercalation properties as they are capable of...

Read More thumbnail image: Preparation intercalation and characterization of nanostructured Zn Al layered double hydroxides LDHs

Sequence‐based US population data for the SE33 locus

Published: Jun 1, 2018

Author(s): Lisa A. Borsuk, Katherine B. Gettings, Carolyn R. Steffen, Kevin M. Kiesler, Peter M. Vallone

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract A set of 1036 U.S. Population Samples were sequenced using the Illumina ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit. This sample set has been highly characterized using a variety of marker systems for human identification. The FASTQ files obtained from a ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit experiment include several STR loci that are not reported in the associated software. These include SE33, DXS8377, DXS10148, DYS456, and DYS461. The...

Read More thumbnail image: Sequencebased US population data for the SE33 locus

The expanding role of mass spectrometry in the field of vaccine development

Published: May 31, 2018

Author(s): Vaneet Kumar Sharma, Ity Sharma, James Glick

Journal: Mass Spectrometry Reviews

Biological mass spectrometry has evolved as a core analytical technology in the last decade mainly because of its unparalleled ability to perform qualitative as well as quantitative profiling of enormously complex biological samples with high mass accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity and specificity. Mass spectrometry‐based techniques are also routinely used to assess glycosylation and other post‐translational...

Read More thumbnail image: The expanding role of mass spectrometry in the field of vaccine development

The effect of athletes` hyperhydration on the urinary ‘steroid profile’ markers in doping control analysis

Published: May 30, 2018

Author(s): I. Athanasiadou, S. Kraiem, S. Al‐Sowaidi, H. Al‐Mohammed, N. Dbes, S. Al‐Yazedi, W. Samsam, V. Mohamed‐Ali, A. Dokoumetzidis, M. Alsayrafi, G. Valsami, C. Georgakopoulos

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract The urinary ‘steroid profile’ in doping control analysis is a powerful tool aimed at detecting intra‐individual deviations related to the abuse of endogenous steroids. Factors altering the steroid profile include, among others, the excessive fluid intake leading to low endogenous steroids concentrations compared to an individual's normal values. Cases report the use of hyperhydration by athletes as a masking method during...

Read More thumbnail image: The effect of athletes hyperhydration on the urinary steroid profile markers in doping control analysis

Dr. Yves Bonnaire

Published: May 29, 2018

Author(s): Ludovic Bailly‐Chouriberry

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Read More thumbnail image: Dr_ Yves Bonnaire
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