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A novel general and efficient technique for dissociating antigen in circulating immune complexes

Published: Nov 14, 2017

Author(s): Yuzhu Dai, Zhengjun Hu, Yu Chen, Bin Lou, Dawei Cui, Aifang Xu, Yueli Rao, Jiahui He, Jiezuan Yang, Xianming Zeng, Xujian Xu, Guozheng Wang, Jian Xu, Tieli Zhou, Changgui Sun, Jun Cheng

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Circulating immune complexes (CICs) are produced during the immune response. It is more clinically important to establish a general and efficient CICs dissociation technique for the detection of antigens for CICs other than the detection of free antigens in the serum. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) two‐precipitation separation and glycine‐HCl as a buffer system were employed to develop a general and efficient buffer dissociation...

Read More thumbnail image: A novel general and efficient technique for dissociating antigen in circulating immune complexes

Electrothermal enrichment of submicron particles in an insulator‐based dielectrophoretic microdevice

Published: Nov 14, 2017

Author(s): Akshay Kale, Le Song, Xinyu Lu, Liandong Yu, Guoqing Hu, Xiangchun Xuan

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Insulator‐based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) exploits in‐channel hurdles and posts etc. to create electric field gradients for various particle manipulations. However, the presence of such insulating structures also amplifies the Joule heating in the fluid around themselves, leading to both temperature gradients and electrothermal flow. These Joule heating effects have been previously demonstrated to weaken the...

Read More thumbnail image: Electrothermal enrichment of submicron particles in an insulatorbased dielectrophoretic microdevice

GeoRaman

Published: Nov 14, 2017

Author(s): Andrey V. Korsakov, Craig Patrick Marshall

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Read More thumbnail image: GeoRaman

Advances in computational and statistical diffusion MRI

Published: Nov 14, 2017

Author(s): Lauren J. O'Donnell, Alessandro Daducci, Demian Wassermann, Christophe Lenglet

Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

Computational methods are crucial for the analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Computational diffusion MRI can provide rich information at many size scales, including local microstructure measures such as diffusion anisotropies or apparent axon diameters, whole‐brain connectivity information that describes the brain's wiring diagram and population‐based studies in health and disease. Many of the diffusion...

Read More thumbnail image: Advances in computational and statistical diffusion MRI

Codeine influences the serum and urinary profile of endogenous androgens but does not interact with the excretion rate of administered testosterone

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): M. Lehtihet, A. Andersson, A. Börjesson, J. Schulze, A. Rane, M. Ericsson, L. Ekström

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Today's doping tests involve longitudinal monitoring of urinary steroids including the testosterone glucuronide and epitestosterone glucuronide ratio (T/E) in an Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of short‐term use of codeine on the urinary excretion of androgen metabolites included in the steroidal module of the passport prior to and after the...

Read More thumbnail image: Codeine influences the serum and urinary profile of endogenous androgens but does not interact with the excretion rate of administered testosterone

Detection of in utero cannabis exposure by umbilical cord analysis

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Jiyoung Kim, Ana Castro, Elena Lendoiro, Angelines Cruz‐Landeira, Manuel López‐Rivadulla, Marta Concheiro

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract According to the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 5.3% of pregnant women smoked marijuana in the past month. This prevalence is expected to increase as a growing number of states and countries are now considering legalization. Although the umbilical cord is becoming a useful objective tool to detect in utero drug exposure, currently data about analytical methods and its utility to detect cannabis exposure are...

Read More thumbnail image: Detection of in utero cannabis exposure by umbilical cord analysis

Immunomagnetic beads‐based isolation of erythropoietins from urine and blood for sports anti‐doping control

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Philippe Desharnais, Jean‐Francois Naud, Christiane Ayotte

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

According to the World Anti‐Doping Agency (WADA) technical document for erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) analysis (TD2014EPO), double‐blotting of serum/plasma samples is mandatory for all analysis by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and for the confirmation procedures (CP) performed by SDS‐PAGE or SAR‐PAGE. The goal is to prevent potential cross‐reactions of the secondary antibody with remaining proteins in the purified samples. To this...

Read More thumbnail image: Immunomagnetic beadsbased isolation of erythropoietins from urine and blood for sports antidoping control

Is zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) a tool for human‐like metabolism study?

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Carina Souza Anselmo, Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Bernardo Fonseca Matias, Amanda Reis Carvalho, Valeria Pereira Sousa, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira, Francisco Radler Aquino Neto

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

One of the greatest challenges in anti‐doping science is the large number of substances available and the difficulty in finding the best analytical targets to detect their misuse. Therefore, metabolism studies involving prohibited substances are fundamental. However, metabolism studies in humans could face an important ethical bottleneck, especially for non‐approved substances. An emerging model for metabolism assessment is the zebrafish,...

Read More thumbnail image: Is zebrafish  Danio rerio  a tool for humanlike metabolism study

Characterization of in vitro generated metabolites of selected peptides <2 kDa prohibited in sports

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Andreas Thomas, Andre Knoop, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

With an increasing number of prohibited substances in doping controls, knowledge about their metabolism is crucial for efficient analysis. While for low molecular mass molecules, standard protocols for in vitro metabolism experiments are well established, the situation with peptidic drugs has been shown to be substantially more heterogeneous and complex. Two principle strategies aiming at simulating the metabolism of lower molecular mass peptides in...

Read More thumbnail image: Characterization of in vitro generated metabolites of selected peptides 2kDa prohibited in sports

Probing the shear and layer breathing modes in multilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Miao‐Ling Lin, Jiang‐Bin Wu, Xue‐Lu Liu, Ping‐Heng Tan

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

The measurements of interlayer vibrations in multilayer graphene (MLG) have triggered a huge effort to understand phonons, electron–electron, electron–phonon, magneto–phonon interactions and the effect of layer number, stacking sequences, and layer orientations on the Raman spectroscopy of MLG. Here, we provide a review on the optical probe of interlayer vibrations, comprising the shear (C) and layer breathing (LB) modes. At first, we...

Read More thumbnail image: Probing the shear and layer breathing modes in multilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy

Baseline and interferent correction by the Tikhonov regularization framework for linear least squares modeling

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Joakim Skogholt, Kristian Hovde Liland, Ulf Geir Indahl

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract Spectroscopic data are usually perturbed by noise from various sources that should be removed prior to model calibration. After conducting a preprocessing step to eliminate unwanted multiplicative effects (effects that scale the pure signal in a multiplicative manner), we discuss how to correct a model for unwanted additive effects in the spectra. Our approach is described within the Tikhonov regularization (TR) framework...

Read More thumbnail image: Baseline and interferent correction by the Tikhonov regularization framework for linear least squares modeling

Dynamics of H 2 O ligands and ReO 4 anions at the phase transition in MnH 2 O 2 ReO 4 2 studied by complementary spectroscopic methods

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Joanna Hetmańczyk, Łukasz Hetmańczyk

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract The vibrational and reorientational motions of H2O ligands and ReO 4 − anions in high‐ and low‐temperature phases were investigated by means of Fourier transform far‐ and mid‐infrared and Raman light‐scattering spectroscopy and neutron scattering (inelastic/quasi‐elastic incoherent neutron scattering) methods. The ...

Read More thumbnail image: Dynamics of H 2 O ligands and ReO 4  anions at the phase transition in MnH 2 O 2 ReO 4  2 studied by complementary spectroscopic methods

Comparative Raman and visible near‐infrared spectroscopic studies of jarosite endmember mixtures and solid solutions relevant to Mars

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Changqing Liu, Zongcheng Ling, Fengke Cao, Jian Chen

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

The chemical, structural and spectral properties of hydrated sulfate minerals are essential for their potential identifications and better understanding of martian aqueous history. Jarosite is an indicator of wet and acidic conditions on Mars. However, whether jarosites exist as solid solution phases or physical mixtures of endmembers is still an open question. In this study, we focused on comparisons of spectral characteristics (X‐ray...

Read More thumbnail image: Comparative Raman and visible nearinfrared spectroscopic studies of jarosite endmember mixtures and solid solutions relevant to Mars

Range of therapeutic prothipendyl and prothipendyl sulfoxide concentrations in clinical blood samples

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Michael Krämer, Peter Heese, Markus Banger, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Due to a lack of reference blood concentrations in the literature, the forensic evaluation of prothipendyl findings in blood samples is difficult. Interpretations with regard to the assessment of blood concentrations as well as an estimation of the ingested prothipendyl amounts were often vague. To describe a concentration range in clinical samples, prothipendyl and prothipendyl sulfoxide concentrations were determined in...

Read More thumbnail image: Range of therapeutic prothipendyl and prothipendyl sulfoxide concentrations in clinical blood samples

High‐volume steroid isotopic standards developed as working standards for gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Herbert J. Tobias, J. Thomas Brenna

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract High‐precision carbon isotope ratio analysis of urinary steroids by gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS) is the official test to detect illicit doping of synthetic versions of endogenous steroids, such as testosterone. Our group created the first steroid isotopic standards (SIS) specifically for World Anti‐Doping Agency (WADA) accredited laboratories. The standards contain mixtures of...

Read More thumbnail image: Highvolume steroid isotopic standards developed as working standards for gas chromatographycombustionisotope ratio mass spectrometry

Emerging materials for sample preparation

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Fernando Maya, Carlos Palomino Cabello, Milad Ghani, Gemma Turnes Palomino, Víctor Cerdà

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

Abstract This review provides an update on the implementation of emerging materials as sorbents for sample preparation in combination with chromatographic separation. We have focused on recent applications of metal–organic frameworks, layered double hydroxides, porous carbons obtained from polymers or biomass precursors, and silicates (clays and zeolites). The review is directed toward the strategies followed by the authors to...

Read More thumbnail image: Emerging materials for sample preparation

Number of theoretical plates achievable by a toroidal capillary electrophoresis system

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Tarso B. Ledur Kist

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

Abstract The ability of a method and instrument to separate very similar compounds is related to the “plate number,” a number indicating performance. The resolution between two neighboring peaks is proportional to the square root of the plate number. Currently available commercial capillary electrophoresis instruments easily reach plate numbers of a few million. In the present work, a capillary electrophoresis system with a toroidal...

Read More thumbnail image: Number of theoretical plates achievable by a toroidal capillary electrophoresis system

Comparative study of cylindrical and parallel‐plate electrophoretic separations for the removal of ions and sub‐23 nm particles

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Tongzhu Yu, Yixin Yang, Jianguo Liu, Huaqiao Gui, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yin Cheng, Wenyu Wang, Peng Du, Jie Wang, Huanqin Wang

Journal: Journal of Separation Science

Abstract Cylindrical and parallel‐plate electrophoretic separations for the removal of ions and sub‐23 nm particles were compared in this study. First, COMSOL Multiphysics® software was utilized to simulate the ion and particle trajectories inside both electrophoretic separations. The results show that ions and sub‐23 nm particles are removed simultaneously and that all particles can pass through both electrophoretic...

Read More thumbnail image: Comparative study of cylindrical and parallelplate electrophoretic separations for the removal of ions and sub23nm particles

Determination of lipid bilayer affinities and solvation characteristics by electrokinetic chromatography using polymer‐bound lipid bilayer nanodiscs

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): William M. Penny, Christopher P. Palmer

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Styrene‐maleic acid polymer‐bound lipid bilayer nanodiscs have been investigated and characterized by electrokinetic chromatography. Linear solvation energy relationship analysis was employed to characterize the changes in solvation environment of nanodiscs of varied belt to lipid ratio, belt polymer chemistry and molecular weight, and lipid composition. Increases in the lipid to belt polymer ratio resulted in smaller, more...

Read More thumbnail image: Determination of lipid bilayer affinities and solvation characteristics by electrokinetic chromatography using polymerbound lipid bilayer nanodiscs

MS2 and Qβ bacteriophages reveal the contribution of surface hydrophobicity on the mobility of non‐enveloped icosahedral viruses in SDS‐based capillary zone electrophoresis

Published: Nov 13, 2017

Author(s): Guillaume Sautrey, Adrien Brié, Christophe Gantzer, Alain Walcarius

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract SDS is commonly employed as BGE additive in CZE analysis of non‐enveloped icosahedral viruses. But the way by which SDS interacts with the surface of such viruses remains to date poorly known, making complicate to understand their behavior during a run. In this article, two related bacteriophages, MS2 and Qβ, are used as model to investigate the migration mechanism of non‐enveloped icosahedral viruses in SDS‐based CZE. Both...

Read More thumbnail image: MS2 and Q bacteriophages reveal the contribution of surface hydrophobicity on the mobility of nonenveloped icosahedral viruses in SDSbased capillary zone electrophoresis
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