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Recent developments in open tubular capillary electrochromatography from 2016 to 2017

Published: Sep 6, 2017

Author(s): Faustino M. Tarongoy, Paul R. Haddad, Joselito P. Quirino

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Interest in open‐tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT‐CEC) continues to thrive because of the inherent advantage of OT‐CEC combining the high efficiency of capillary electrophoresis and the high selectivity of high performance liquid chromatography. For the period 2016 to 2017, novel materials have been developed as first‐time stationary phases for OT‐CEC and are grouped in this review as polymer‐based materials,...

Read More thumbnail image: Recent developments in open tubular capillary electrochromatography from 2016 to 2017

Uniform‐sized neurosphere‐mediated motoneuron differentiation in microwell arrays

Published: Sep 6, 2017

Author(s): Jong Min Lee, Joo Yoon Moon, Mohammed R. Shaker, Woong Sun, Bong Geun Chung

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

We developed the photocrosslinkable hydrogel microwell arrays for uniform‐sized neurosphere‐mediated motoneuron differentiation. Neural stem cells (NSCs) were obtained from embryonic cerebral cortex and spinal cord. To generate uniform‐sized neurospheres in a homogeneous manner, the dissociated cells were cultured in the hydrogel microwell arrays for 3 days. Uniform‐sized neurospheres harvested from microwell arrays were replated into...

Read More thumbnail image: Uniformsized neurospheremediated motoneuron differentiation in microwell arrays

Comparison of antimicrobial peptide purification via free‐flow electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography

Published: Sep 6, 2017

Author(s): Zhi‐Jun Xia, Zhen Liu, Fan‐Zhi Kong, Liu‐Yin Fan, Hua Xiao, Cheng‐Xi Cao

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are usually small and cationic biomolecules with broad‐spectrum antimicrobial activities against pathogens. Purifying them from complex samples is essential to study their physiochemical properties. In this work, free‐flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) was utilized to purify AMPs from yeast fermentation broth. Meanwhile, gel filtration chromatography (GFC) was conducted for comparison. The...

Read More thumbnail image: Comparison of antimicrobial peptide purification via freeflow electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography

Quantification of free fatty acids in human stratum corneum using tandem mass spectrometry and surrogate analyte approach

Published: Sep 5, 2017

Author(s): Irena Dapic, Renata Kobetic, Lidija Brkljacic, Sanja Kezic, Ivone Jakasa

Journal: Biomedical Chromatography

Abstract The free fatty acids (FFAs) are one of the major components of the lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), the uppermost layer of the skin. Relative composition of FFAs has been proposed as a biomarker of the skin barrier status in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Here, we developed an LC‐ESI‐MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of a range of FFAs with long and very long chain length in the SC collected by adhesive...

Read More thumbnail image: Quantification of free fatty acids in human stratum corneum using tandem mass spectrometry and surrogate analyte approach

Potential impact of the sewer system on the applicability of alcohol and tobacco biomarkers in wastewater‐based epidemiology

Published: Sep 5, 2017

Author(s): Andrew P.W. Banks, Foon Yin Lai, Jochen F. Mueller, Guangming Jiang, Steve Carter, Phong K. Thai

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Understanding the actual consumption of alcohol and tobacco in the population is important for forming public health policy. For this purpose, wastewater‐based epidemiology has been applied as a complementary method to estimate the overall alcohol and tobacco consumption in different communities. However, the stability of their consumption biomarkers – ethyl sulfate, ethyl glucuronide, cotinine, and trans‐3′‐hydroxycotinine...

Read More thumbnail image: Potential impact of the sewer system on the applicability of alcohol and tobacco biomarkers in wastewaterbased epidemiology

Confirmation of recent heroin abuse: Accepting the challenge

Published: Sep 5, 2017

Author(s): Alexandra Maas, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Confirmation or exclusion of recent heroin consumption is still one of the major challenges for forensic and clinical toxicologists. A great variety of biomarkers is available for heroin abuse confirmation, including various opium alkaloids (eg, morphine, codeine), street heroin impurities (eg, 6‐acetylcodeine [6‐AC], noscapine, papaverine) as well as associated metabolites (eg, 6‐monoacetylmorphine [6‐MAM], morphine...

Read More thumbnail image: Confirmation of recent heroin abuse Accepting the challenge

Multicomponent determination of traditional Chinese medicine preparation yin‐zhi‐huang injection by LC–MS/MS for screening of its potential bioactive candidates using HepaRG cells

Published: Sep 4, 2017

Author(s): Zhi Rao, Fan Zhang, Xiao‐Yi Zhang, Guo‐Qiang Zhang, Yan‐Rong Ma, Yan Zhou, Hong‐Yan Qin, Xin‐An Wu, Yu‐Hui Wei

Journal: Biomedical Chromatography

Abstract Yin‐zhi‐huang (YZH) injection is an injectable multiherbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese medicine formula of Yin‐chen‐hao‐tang, which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, the systematic study of the components in this multiherbal prescription still lacks suitable analytical methods that are able to simultaneously detect a broad array of components at...

Read More thumbnail image: Multicomponent determination of traditional Chinese medicine preparation yinzhihuang injection by LCMSMS for screening of its potential bioactive candidates using HepaRG cells

Chemical UPLC‐ESI‐MS/MS profiling of aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. Root extract

Published: Sep 3, 2017

Author(s): Mingjie Zhang, Manman Wang, Jiajia Liang, Yongqing Wen, Zhili Xiong

Journal: Biomedical Chromatography

Abstract In this paper, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC‐ESI‐MS/MS) method in positive ion mode was established to systematically identify and to compare the major aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of Fuzi extract. A total twenty‐nine components including twenty‐five C19‐diterpenoid alkaloids and four C20‐diterpenoid alkaloids...

Read More thumbnail image: Chemical UPLCESIMSMS profiling of aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx_ Root extract

Rapid automatic creation of monodisperse emulsion droplets by microfluidic device with degassed PDMS slab as a detachable suction actuator

Published: Sep 1, 2017

Author(s): Yuki Murata, Yuta Nakashoji, Masaki Kondo, Yugo Tanaka, Masahiko Hashimoto

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

We previously developed a technique that enabled automatic creation of monodisperse water‐in‐oil droplets with the use of an air‐evacuated PDMS microfluidic device. Although the device generated droplets over a long‐time period, the production rate was slow (∼10 droplets per second). In the current study, we aimed to improve this rate, using the same fluid pumping principle described in our previous work, by remodeling our device...

Read More thumbnail image: Rapid automatic creation of monodisperse emulsion droplets by microfluidic device with degassed PDMS slab as a detachable suction actuator

Synthesis of supermacroporous cryogel for bioreactors continuous starch hydrolysis

Published: Sep 1, 2017

Author(s): Ederson Paulo Xavier Guilherme, Jocilane Pereira Oliveira, Lorendane Millena Carvalho, Igor Viana Brandi, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, Gleidson Giordano Pinto Carvalho, Junio Cota, Bruna Mara Aparecida de Carvalho

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

A bioreactor was built by means of immobilizing alpha‐amylase from Aspergillus oryzae by encapsulation, through cryopolymerization of acrylamide monomers for the continuous starch hydrolysis. The starch hydrolysis was evaluated regarding pH, the concentration of immobilized amylase on cryogel, the concentration of starch solution and temperature. The maximum value for starch hydrolysis was achieved at pH 5.0, concentration of immobilized enzyme...

Read More thumbnail image: Synthesis of supermacroporous cryogel for bioreactors continuous starch hydrolysis

Advances in the analysis of “less‐conventional” human body fluids: An overview of the CE‐ and HPLC‐MS applications in the years 2015–2017

Published: Sep 1, 2017

Author(s): Monica Di Venere, Simona Viglio, Maddalena Cagnone, Anna Bardoni, Roberta Salvini, Paolo Iadarola

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Aim of this article is to focus the attention of the reader on the application of CE/MS and LC/MS to the analysis of human body fluids not currently used for the diagnosis of disorders and, for this reason, catalogued as “less/nonconventional” fluids, that is, tears, nasal secretions, cerumen, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, sputum, exhaled breath condensate, nipple aspirate, breast milk, amniotic fluid, bile, seminal plasma, liposuction...

Read More thumbnail image: Advances in the analysis of lessconventional human body fluids An overview of the CE and HPLCMS applications in the years 20152017

Decoding the microstructural correlate of diffusion MRI

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Svenja Caspers, Markus Axer

Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

Diffusion imaging has evolved considerably over the past decade. While it provides valuable information about the structural connectivity at the macro‐ and mesoscopic scale, bridging the gap to the microstructure at the level of single nerve fibers poses an enormous challenge. This is particularly true for the human brain with its large size, its large white‐matter volume and availability of histological techniques for studying human...

Read More thumbnail image: Decoding the microstructural correlate of diffusion MRI

Post‐modified non‐negative matrix factorization for deconvoluting the gene expression profiles of specific cell types from heterogeneous clinical samples based on RNA‐sequencing data

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Yuan Liu, Yu Liang, Qifan Kuang, Fanfan Xie, Yingyi Hao, Zhining Wen, Menglong Li

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract The application of supervised algorithms in clinical practice has been limited by the lack of information on pure cell types. Several supervised algorithms have been proposed to estimate the gene expression patterns of specific cell types from heterogeneous samples. Post‐modified non‐negative matrix factorization (NMF), the unsupervised algorithm we proposed here, is capable of estimating the gene expression profiles and...

Read More thumbnail image: Postmodified nonnegative matrix factorization for deconvoluting the gene expression profiles of specific cell types from heterogeneous clinical samples based on RNAsequencing data

Raman spectroscopic determination of Sr/Ca ratios of calcite samples

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Yusuke Shibano, Kohei Takahata, Jun Kawano, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Daisuke Enomoto, Hiroyuki Kagi, Natsumi Kamiya, Junji Yamamoto

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract We investigated the relation between Sr# [= 100 Sr/(Sr + Ca) in mol] of calcites and their Raman spectra for Sr‐doped calcite samples with Sr# of 0–13.2. We selected 3 major Raman peaks observed at 150–155 cm−1 (peak A), 274–282 cm−1 (peak B), and 710–712.5 cm−1 (peak C). With increasing Sr#, the peaks shifted monotonously to lower wavenumbers. We obtained a linear expression for peak B as...

Read More thumbnail image: Raman spectroscopic determination of SrCa ratios of calcite samples

FTIR‐ATR adulteration study of hempseed oil of different geographic origins

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Ozren Jović, Alan Jović

Journal: Journal of Chemometrics

Abstract Adulteration of hempseed (H) oil, a well‐known health beneficial nutrient, is studied in this work by mixing it with cheap and widely used oils such as rapeseed (R) oil and sesame (Se) and sunflower (Su) oil. Many samples of different geographic origins were taken into account. Binary mixture sets of hempseed oil with these 3 oils (HR, HSe, and HSu) were considered. FTIR spectra of pure oils and their mixtures were...

Read More thumbnail image: FTIRATR adulteration study of hempseed oil of different geographic origins

Quantitative surface‐enhanced resonance Raman scattering analysis of methylene blue using silver colloid

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): J.A. Anastasopoulos, A. Soto Beobide, A.C. Manikas, G.A. Voyiatzis

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract Quantitative analysis of methylene blue (MB) has been performed with Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, SERS, using citrate reduced silver colloid activated with NaCl. In this study, the combination of SERS occurring at the proximity of the plasmon surface and of resonance Raman with excitation wavelength matched to the maximum absorbance of the molecule being analyzed, was successfully applied to maximize the Raman...

Read More thumbnail image: Quantitative surfaceenhanced resonance Raman scattering analysis of methylene blue using silver colloid

Quantification of cocaine in ternary mixtures using partial least squares regression applied to Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Ciro Augusto Fernandes Oliveira Penido, Marcos Tadeu Tavares Pacheco, Etelvino Henrique Novotny, Igor K. Lednev, Landulfo Silveira

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract The use of chemicals is often related to suicide attempts and acute poisoning, which account for a significant number of hospital admissions. The differential diagnosis of patients exposed to poisoning is intricate and varies according to the substance used. The identification of drugs and drug abuse in cases of poisoning often requires time‐consuming and complex techniques, such as chromatography. The use of vibrational...

Read More thumbnail image: Quantification of cocaine in ternary mixtures using partial least squares regression applied to Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Identifying the stacking order of multilayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition via Raman spectroscopy

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Miao‐Ling Lin, Tao Chen, Wei Lu, Qing‐Hai Tan, Pei Zhao, Hong‐Tao Wang, Yang Xu, Ping‐Heng Tan

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Large‐area monolayer (1LG) and multilayer graphene (MLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been of great technological importance for the graphene electronics and photonics. Such CVD‐grown MLG (CVD‐MLG) flakes consist of multiple single crystal domains, whose stacking orders can be diverse due to the various choices of layer number, stacking sequence, and twist angle. Here, we demonstrated a way to identify the stacking order...

Read More thumbnail image: Identifying the stacking order of multilayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition via Raman spectroscopy

Alkaloid profiling of herbal drugs using high resolution mass spectrometry

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Tiziana Nardin, Edi Piasentier, Chiara Barnaba, Roberto Larcher

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Herbal infusions are consumed worldwide thanks to their “natural” beneficial effects, also due to the presence of alkaloids, although these compounds can have poisonous effects. A method combining online solid‐phase purification with high resolution mass spectrometry was used to define the alkaloid profiles of 117 herbs and 7 commercial blends. Forty‐one alkaloids were quantified in reference to analytical standards, while...

Read More thumbnail image: Alkaloid profiling of herbal drugs using high resolution mass spectrometry

Power of Orbitrap‐based LC‐high resolution‐MS/MS for comprehensive drug testing in urine with or without conjugate cleavage or using dried urine spots after on‐spot cleavage in comparison to established LC–MS n or GC–MS procedures

Published: Aug 31, 2017

Author(s): Julian A. Michely, Markus R. Meyer, Hans H. Maurer

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Reliable, sensitive, and comprehensive urine screening procedures by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) or liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) with low or high resolution (HR) are of high importance for drug testing, adherence monitoring, or detection of toxic compounds. Besides conventional urine sampling, dried urine spots are of increasing interest. In the present study, the power of LC–HR–MS/MS was...

Read More thumbnail image: Power of Orbitrapbased LChigh resolutionMSMS for comprehensive drug testing in urine with or without conjugate cleavage or using dried urine spots after onspot cleavage in comparison to established LCMS n or GCMS procedures
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