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Metabolism of vesatolimod in rat, dog, and human liver microsomes: Metabolic stability assessment, metabolite identification, and interspecies comparison

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Wen Li, Jing Zhang, Yanping Wang, Fangdi Hu, Yinghua Zhang

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract Vesatolimod (GS‐9620) is an agonist of toll‐like receptor (TLR7) 7, which has been developed as an anti‐hepatitis B virus (HBV) agent. The focus of the present study is on the metabolic stability evaluation and metabolite identification of GS‐9620 in rat, dog, and human liver microsomes, as well as interspecies comparison. The average observed in vitro T1/2 values were 3.06, 13.06, and 15.56 minutes in rat, dog, and human liver...

Read More thumbnail image: Metabolism of vesatolimod in rat dog and human liver microsomes Metabolic stability assessment metabolite identification and interspecies comparison

Organic inclusions evidence, composition, and cathodoluminescence behaviour for the formation conditions of fluorapatite from Anemzi (Morocco)

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Magdalena Dumańska‐Słowik, Aleksandra Wesełucha‐Birczyńska, Wiesław Heflik, Weronika Maksymiuk, Magdalena Sikorska‐Jaworowska

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract Fluorapatite from Anemzi alkaline syenite hosts a wealth of solid organic inclusions, mainly of aliphatic (2,935–2,845 cm−1) and aromatic hydrocarbon compositions (3,100–3,000 cm−1), as well as traces of bituminous matter showing a low degree of ordering. The tiny inclusions built from oxides of titanium (rutile and anatase) are the only mineral phases found in host crystals. The two‐phase, liquid–gas fluid inclusions are composed ...

Read More thumbnail image: Organic inclusions evidence composition and cathodoluminescence behaviour for the formation conditions of fluorapatite from Anemzi Morocco

Assessment of the results of a three‐year program for National Standardization and Quality Improvement of Medical Laboratories on Drug of Abuse Testing by the Ministry of Health in Turkey

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Tuncay Küme, Ferzane Mercan, Hatice Topsakal, Cigdem Karakukcu, Mehmet Şeneş, Aslı Pınar, Mukaddes Gürler, Hakan Kalafat, Belgin Ünal, Alain G. Verstraete, Yeşim Hamurtekin, Ahmet Aydınlı, Yasemin Şenol, Muhammed Ertuğrul Eğin, Alper Cihan, Elif Güler Kazancı, Eyüp Gümüş

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Abstract The aim of this study is to assess the results of inspections in the last three years of drug abuse testing in medical laboratories according to the latest regulations in Turkey. The on‐site inspections of medical laboratories for drugs abuse testing performed in Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Centers during 2014–2016 are described, and laboratory processes and performance evaluated. The performance of 35...

Read More thumbnail image: Assessment of the results of a threeyear program for National Standardization and Quality Improvement of Medical Laboratories on Drug of Abuse Testing by the Ministry of Health in Turkey

High vibrational overtone excitation‐induced conformational isomerization of glycolic acid in solid argon matrix

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Jussi M.E. Ahokas, Iwona Kosendiak, Justyna Krupa, Maria Wierzejewska, Jan Lundell

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract The high overtone‐induced isomerization of glycolic acid in a low‐temperature argon matrix was investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum of glycolic acid is presented, and the spectral assignment is supported by vibrational anharmonic calculations. The high overtone excitation of the lowest energy conformer (SSC) at 532 nm induced direct conformational isomerization to higher energy conformers (GAC and...

Read More thumbnail image: High vibrational overtone excitationinduced conformational isomerization of glycolic acid in solid argon matrix

Alternate field evaporation by changing laser pulsing and voltage pulsing dynamically for atom probe analysis

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): M. Taniguchi, O. Nishikawa

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Time‐of‐flight mass analysis in atom‐by‐atom scale is performed in atom probe (AP) by pulsed field evaporation of sample material. The pulsed field evaporation is triggered by superposing voltage pulse or shooting laser pulse together with stationary voltage for evaporation field. Voltage pulse which has been used from the establishment of AP in the 1960s is going to be replaced by short pulsed laser with high repetition rate in the...

Read More thumbnail image: Alternate field evaporation by changing laser pulsing and voltage pulsing dynamically for atom probe analysis

Numerical and experimental investigation of ‘water fan’ effect due to electrohydrodynamic force in a microchamber

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Hai Jiang, Xu Yang, Na Fan, Bei Peng, Xuan Weng

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Electrohydrodynamics is commonly used in microfluidics to control and manipulate the fluid. Though there are studies on the rotation flow in suspended films, the thin film liquid is easily broken and cannot last long hence not applicable in specific applications. Here, we established a three‐dimensional microchamber embedded with two pairs of microelectrodes to investigate the rotational phenomenon of bulk of liquid which...

Read More thumbnail image: Numerical and experimental investigation of water fan effect due to electrohydrodynamic force in a microchamber

Determination of kinetic parameters of redox reactions using CE‐ICP‐MS: A case study for the reduction of Np(V) by hydroxylamine hydrochloride

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Christian Willberger, Samer Amayri, Tobias Reich

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract The rate constants k of the reduction of 5 × 10–5 M Np(V) to Np(IV) by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HAHCl) in 1 M HCl have been determined by CE‐ICP‐MS in the temperature range of ϑ = 30–70°C and with varying concentrations of HAHCl from 1 to 7.2 M. The reaction was found to have (pseudo)first order kinetics with respect to HAHCl. The experimental results for k ranged from 0.0029(1) min−1...

Read More thumbnail image: Determination of kinetic parameters of redox reactions using CEICPMS A case study for the reduction of NpV by hydroxylamine hydrochloride

Dynamics of partially obstructed breakup of bubbles in microfluidic Y‐junctions

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Xu Ziyi, Fu Taotao, Zhu Chunying, Jiang Shaokun, Ma Youguang, Wang Kai, Luo Guangsheng

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract For revealing the dynamics of partially obstructed breakup of bubbles in microfluidic Y‐junctions, the combination of dimensionless power‐law and geometric model was applied to study the effects of capillary number, bubble length, and channel angle on the bubble rupture process. In the squeezing process, the gas‐liquid interface curve follows the parabolic model. For the evolution of the bubble neck during breakup, the...

Read More thumbnail image: Dynamics of partially obstructed breakup of bubbles in microfluidic Yjunctions

Distinguishing enantiomeric amino acids with chiral cyclodextrin adducts and structures for lossless ion manipulations

Published: Sep 17, 2018

Author(s): Gabe Nagy, Christopher D. Chouinard, Isaac K. Attah, Ian K. Webb, Sandilya V. B. Garimella, Yehia M. Ibrahim, Erin S. Baker, Richard D. Smith

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Enantiomeric molecular evaluations remain an enormous challenge for current analytical techniques. To date, derivatization strategies and long separation times are generally required in these studies, and the development and implementation of new approaches are needed to increase speed and distinguish currently unresolvable compounds. Herein, we describe a method using chiral cyclodextrin adducts and structures for lossless...

Read More thumbnail image: Distinguishing enantiomeric amino acids with chiral cyclodextrin adducts and structures for lossless ion manipulations

Raman spectroscopy of the eight natural carbonate minerals of calcite structure

Published: Sep 16, 2018

Author(s): William J.B. Dufresne, Carson J. Rufledt, Craig P. Marshall

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract To date, only five natural carbonate minerals of calcite structure have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. These include calcite (CaCO3), magnesite (MgCO3), siderite (FeCO3), smithsonite (ZnCO3), and rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Thus far, only synthetic compounds of otavite (CdCO3), spherocobaltite (CoCO3), and gaspeite (NiCO3) have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. However, the Raman spectra of natural otavite, spherocobaltite, and gaspeite ...

Read More thumbnail image: Raman spectroscopy of the eight natural carbonate minerals of calcite structure

Shifted‐excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for the detection of SERS‐encoded gold nanostar probes

Published: Sep 16, 2018

Author(s): Janna Register, Martin Maiwald, Andrew Fales, Pietro Strobbia, Bernd Sumpf, Tuan Vo‐Dinh

Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract In vivo applications of surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) have limited sensitivity due to the intense background signal from real‐life complex samples such as plants and tissues. To overcome this issue, this work investigates the combination of shifted‐excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) with SERS nanoprobes to generate background‐free SE‐SERDS spectra. The SERDS technique was performed with a...

Read More thumbnail image: Shiftedexcitation Raman difference spectroscopy for the detection of SERSencoded gold nanostar probes

Mapping nanometer and micrometer‐scale structures at graphite surface by photoelectron diffraction

Published: Sep 14, 2018

Author(s): Yoshiki Fujita, Hiroshi Ota, Tomohiro Matsushita, Takayuki Muro, Yasunori Senba, Fumihiko Matsui

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

A series of C 1s photoelectron intensity angular distribution (PIAD) patterns from a crystalline graphite surface were mapped in two dimensions at intervals of 20 μm. Two kinds of PIAD patterns rotated by 30° from each other, corresponding to the two domains from the twinned crystal, were found. The standard deviation of the diffraction contrast was evaluated for each PIAD pattern from its intensity histogram. Surprisingly, we found...

Read More thumbnail image: Mapping nanometer and micrometerscale structures at graphite surface by photoelectron diffraction

Iterative deconvolution using the MRI model for removing experimental broadening and shift effects in SIMS depth profiles

Published: Sep 14, 2018

Author(s): Fayçal Boulsina, Brice Gautier

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

During the last years, depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been enhanced, mainly by solving direct and inverse problems of depth profiling. The solution of both problems is based on the depth resolution function (DRF). Solving the direct problem is frequently done by using the DRF of the Mixing‐Roughness‐Information depth (MRI) model, and solving the inverse problem is frequently achieved by using the DRF...

Read More thumbnail image: Iterative deconvolution using the MRI model for removing experimental broadening and shift effects in SIMS depth profiles

Effect of anodizing conditions on the cell morphology of anodic films on AA2024‐T3 alloy

Published: Sep 14, 2018

Author(s): Jeanette M. Torrescano‐Alvarez, Michele Curioni, Xiaorong Zhou, Peter Skeldon

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

The effects of applied current density, anodizing time, and electrolyte temperature on the cell and pore morphology of anodic films and the voltage‐time response obtained during galvanostatic anodizing of AA2024‐T3 alloy in sulphuric acid electrolytes have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the film morphology. Sponge‐like porous structure was promoted by anodizing at relatively low current density and high...

Read More thumbnail image: Effect of anodizing conditions on the cell morphology of anodic films on AA2024T3 alloy

Fast and facile preparation of nanostructured silicon surfaces for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of small compounds

Published: Sep 13, 2018

Author(s): Abderrahmane Hamdi, Christine Enjalbal, Hervé Drobecq, Rabah Boukherroub, Oleg Melnyk, Hatem Ezzaouia, Yannick Coffinier

Journal: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

Rationale Many important biological processes rely on specific biomarkers (such as metabolites, drugs, proteins or peptides, carbohydrates, lipids, ...) that need to be monitored in various fluids (blood, plasma, urine, cell cultures, tissue homogenates, …). Although mass spectrometry (MS) hyphenated to liquid chromatography (LC) is widely accepted as a ‘gold‐standard’ method for identifying such synthetic...

Read More thumbnail image: Fast and facile preparation of nanostructured silicon surfaces for laser desorptionionization mass spectrometry of small compounds

Electric field assisted transport of dielectric droplets dispersed in aqueous solutions of ionic surfactants

Published: Sep 13, 2018

Author(s): Jakub Tuček, Zdeněk Slouka, Michal Přibyl

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Motion of liquid droplets with a surface electric charge can be efficiently controlled by dc electric field. Here, we show that the surface of a dielectric kerosene droplet can be charged by the addition of ionic surfactants to a surrounding aqueous electrolyte. The direction of droplet motion is determined by the polarity of the surfactant charge and the orientation of the imposed electric field. We have found that the...

Read More thumbnail image: Electric field assisted transport of dielectric droplets dispersed in aqueous solutions of ionic surfactants

Separation and determination of alpha‐synuclein monomeric and oligomeric species using two electrophoretic approaches

Published: Sep 13, 2018

Author(s): Aurore Napp, Virginie Houbart, Alice Demelenne, Marie‐Paule Merville, Jacques Crommen, Mireille Dumoulin, Gaëtan Garraux, Anne‐Catherine Servais, Marianne Fillet

Journal: ELECTROPHORESIS

Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent degenerative disorder that is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. When the first symptoms appear, more than 70% of the dopaminergic cells are already lost. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have reliable biomarkers to diagnose much earlier PD. In this context, alpha‐synuclein (aSyn) is a protein of high interest because of its tendency to form oligomers and amyloid fibrils....

Read More thumbnail image: Separation and determination of alphasynuclein monomeric and oligomeric species using two electrophoretic approaches

Approach to excellent superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance of carbon‐based films by graphene and cobalt synergism

Published: Sep 13, 2018

Author(s): Qingqing Yan, Shengguo Zhou, Liqiu Ma, Shanhong Wan, Xiaobo Zhu

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

A new series of carbon‐based films doped with graphene oxide and cobalt (G‐Co/a‐C:H films) were successfully prepared on Si substrate via one‐step electrochemical deposition of methanol as the carbon source and graphene oxide/cobalt as the dopant. G‐Co/a‐C:H films were fabricated at various graphene oxide concentration for comparative experiments. It can be found that the graphene oxide and cobalt were well embedded in amorphous carbon...

Read More thumbnail image: Approach to excellent superhydrophobicity and corrosion resistance of carbonbased films by graphene and cobalt synergism

Control of nitrogen doping in NaTaO 3 synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and chemical state of nitrogen

Published: Sep 13, 2018

Author(s): Akiyo Ozawa, Keita Kobayashi, Tomoko Yoshida

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Nitrogen‐doped NaTaO3 was synthesized through 1‐pot reaction, hydrothermal process using Ta3N5 as precursor. Changing concentration and amount of NaOH aqueous solution influenced nitrogen content in NaTaO3. Absorption edge of nitrogen‐doped NaTaO3 was extended at 570 nm, and absorbance in visible light region depended on nitrogen content in NaTaO3. Anodic photocurrent measured under visible light irradiation became larger with increasing nitrogen content in NaTaO3‐xNy....

Read More thumbnail image: Control of nitrogen doping in NaTaO 3 synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and chemical state of nitrogen

Improving the interfacial strength of CF/PMMA composites by grafting GO

Published: Sep 13, 2018

Author(s): Zhang Shengbo, Dai Qingling

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis

Graphene oxides (GOs) are incorporated into the carbon fiber surface to enhance the interfacial bonding of carbon fiber reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) composite. GO nanoparticles distributed onto the fiber surface uniformly, which could increase surface polarity and roughness obviously. A large number of functional groups were introduced to the fiber surface, and the surface roughness was increased. Simultaneous increases of...

Read More thumbnail image: Improving the interfacial strength of CFPMMA composites by grafting GO
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