Journal Highlight: Analysis and occurrence of dichloropropanol fatty acid esters and related process-induced contaminants in edible oils and fats

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  • Published: Apr 18, 2016
  • Author: separationsNOW
  • Channels: Gas Chromatography
thumbnail image: Journal Highlight: Analysis and occurrence of dichloropropanol fatty acid esters and related process-induced contaminants in edible oils and fats
A headspace GC/MS method for the indirect determination of ester-bound dichloropropanols uses mild alkaline-catalysed release of chlorohydrins and glycidol, followed by a transformation of glycidol to monobromopropanediol.

Analysis and occurrence of dichloropropanol fatty acid esters and related process-induced contaminants in edible oils and fats

European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 2016, 118, 382-395
Jan Kuhlmann

Abstract: A new sensitive method for the indirect determination of ester-bound 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (2,3-DCP), 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP), 2-chloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD), 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol) in oil matrices is presented. It is based on a mild alkaline-catalysed release of chlorohydrins and glycidol, followed by a transformation of glycidol to monobromopropanediol (MBPD) according to a modification of the AOCS Official Method Cd 29b-13 (3-in-1 method). The dichloropropanols are separated from the monohalogenated diols and the oil matrix by l/l extraction and determined separately by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-HS). Both MCPD isomers and the glycidol derivative are derivatised with phenylboronic acid (PBA) and analysed by GC-MS separately. Method validation was performed in an oil matrix using isotopic labelled esterified standards. Linearity was verified for all analytes (r2 > 0.998). The limit of detection (LOD) for all analytes was ≤5 μg/kg. The modified determination of ester-bound MCPD and glycidol was tested for accuracy by analysing reference samples. All free and bound analytes were investigated regarding their stability against undesired alkaline-induced transformation. It was also demonstrated that bound MCPD and bound DCP might be generated in oil by heat treatment in the presence of a strong chloride donor. The method was applied to the analysis of a variety of different edible oils. None of the two tested dichloropropanols was detected. By contrast and as might be expected, both bound MCPD and bound glycidol were consistently detected in refined oils.

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