Towards an analytic solution for pulsed CEST

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EarlyView Article

  • Published: Feb 20, 2018
  • Author: Daniel F. Gochberg, Mark D. Does, Zhongliang Zu, Christopher L. Lankford
  • Journal: NMR in Biomedicine

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is an imaging method based on magnetization exchange between solutes and water. This exchange generates changes in the measured signal after off‐resonance radiofrequency irradiation. Although the analytic solution for CEST with continuous wave (CW) irradiation has been determined, most studies are performed using pulsed irradiation. In this work, we derive an analytic solution for the CEST signal after pulsed irradiation that includes both short‐time rotation effects and long‐time saturation effects in a two‐pool system corresponding to water and a low‐concentration exchanging solute pool. Several approximations are made to balance the accuracy and simplicity of the resulting analytic form, which is tested against numerical solutions of the coupled Bloch equations and is found to be largely accurate for amides at high fields, but less accurate at the higher exchange rates, lower offsets and typically higher irradiation powers of amines.

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