Sensitive and rapid determination of pyrethroids in human blood by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with ultrasound‐assisted dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction

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EarlyView Article

  • Published: Feb 23, 2018
  • Author: Xue Gao, Hao Guo, Junwei Wang, Qingbiao Zhao
  • Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis


In this study, a sensitive and fast procedure of ultrasonic‐assisted dispersive liquid‐liquid microextraction (UADLLME) coupled with gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) for the determination of major pyrethroid pesticides (permethrin, tetramethrin, bifenthrin, fenvalerate, flucythrinate, fluvalinate, fenpropathrin, deltamethrin, and cyhalothrin) in blood samples was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box‐Behnken design (BBD) and ANOVA function was used to optimize key factors affecting the extraction efficiency of UADLLME procedure. Target compounds were analyzed by GC‐MS/MS. Under the optimal conditions, good linearity (R2>0.99) was achieved for all the analytes in the concentration range of 0.5 to 100 μg L‐1. The recoveries for spiked samples at 3 concentration levels were between 70.2 and 91.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10%. Very low limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 μg L‐1 and from 0.03 to 0.3 μg L‐1 were achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of low concentration of pyrethroids in blood samples from real forensic cases. High sensitivity, fast determination, simplicity in operation, small sample volume, and low usage of organic solvents are the advantages of this method. This methodology is of important value for sensitive and quick determination of residue pesticides and metabolites, study of residue pesticides behavior in human body, as well as application in real forensic cases.

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